What makes a great leader?

Many years ago, I was a member of a local Scout troop. On one occasion we were going to be camping in the woods, and as the mischievous teenagers we were, we decided it would be the perfect opportunity to bring plenty of booze. Our plot was simple: smuggle the contraband onto camp by concealing it in black soda bottles. Once we were set up in the woods and our leader had gone to sleep, we would drink and be merry. We had assumed that our leader would leave us alone and check on us during the night. We were wrong. The next day, whilst scrubbing the toilets, we reflected that perhaps we weren't as smart as we had thought…

OK, so that wasn't a exactly textbook example of leadership. I could easily have opened up with a cliched tale of an ancient commander, leading his troops to victory in the face of overwhelming odds, but that only scratches the surface of leadership. More importantly, we all have the capacity to be great leaders without having to lead an army.

A very simplistic view of leadership is that it's about getting people to work towards the same goal. However, the way this is done is what shows a leader's true qualities. Bullying people into working will only get you so far, but being too easy going may not get you results at all. So what qualities do good leaders share?

  • They lead by example – This is the foundation of everything else that makes a truly great leader. They set the bar high for themselves, and strive to live up to their own expectations. However, just because they have high standards doesn't mean they expect perfection from everyone else. Everybody makes mistakes, even those with the best intentions.
  • They are honest – Honesty and integrity are vital ingredients in any form of human interaction. Lying and scheming can get you places, and whilst some may get away with it, for the majority their underhanded ways will hurt them in the end.
  • They have courage – If there's one constant in life, it's that things are never easy. It takes courage and strength of character to get yourself, and others, through these times. It also takes courage to do the right thing in the face of opposition.
  • They listen – It's easy to bark orders at people, but it's important to listen to those you are leading. Nobody can do everything by themselves, so listen to the ideas and problems of others. It's important to be open to feedback, because if people know you'll ignore their problems and ideas they'll be less likely to tell you anything in the first place.
  • They nurture – There are a lot of talented people around that often feel as if their talents are being ignored. Great leaders can see the potential in others and encourage them to raise their game.
  • They encourage others to be independent – A fear-based leader will not always encourage others to be independent, as this would threaten their position of "being in charge". By encouraging others to work independently, you let them know that you trust them and that they're valuable members of a team.
  • They plan – Because you're working towards a goal, it's essential to plan ahead. This lets people know that you're serious about the project, and also gives them an idea of where things are going.

When we think of leadership, we often assume it is reserved for certain people. After all, leaders are born, not made, right? The truth is, you have the potential to be a truly great leader, and it doesn't have to involve leading hundreds of people. Setting an example to those around you is also a form of leadership. The goal doesn't have to be completing a new project or building a skyscraper, but becoming a better person.

Effective high-level habits to improve your life

In his excellent book, "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People", Steven Covey details the habits that all successful people share. The habits he writes about are what I would call "low-level" habits. This is not a derogatory term, but is meant to convey the idea that these habits are closer to the sub-conscious than higher level habits. Low-level habits are more about changing the way you think, whereas higher level habits are about learning patterns of action that can be repeated.

Steven Covey's Seven Low-Level Habits

In order to gain a further understanding of low-level habits, here are Steven's original seven habits.

  1. Be proactive – We all have the capacity to choose how we react in every situation. We can use the common reactive model of thinking, where we are not in control of what we think or feel, or we can choose to be proactive and decide on our responses.
  2. Begin with the end in mind – Before you start any task, you should have a concrete idea of what the finished result will be.
  3. Put first things first – Don't waste time on insignificant and unrewarding tasks. Aim to sped as much time as possible working on the tasks that will bring you closer to the completion of your goals.
  4. Think win/win – When working with others, always be looking for a solution that benefits both parties. Cultivate and develop an abundance mentality.
  5. Seek first to understand, then to be understood – Always try to see the other person's point of view before impressing your own upon them. Put yourself in their shoes, and try to experience the situation from their viewpoint.
  6. Synergise – Synergy means that the whole is greater than the individual parts. By working together in a synergistic way, we can create much more than if we worked alone. Sadly this has become modern day management speak for "do more work in less time".
  7. Sharpen the saw – Constantly regenerate and reinforce these habits through conscious action.

All of these habits are low-level, as they will affect just about everything you do. Developing any of these habits fully takes conscious effort, but they all bring considerable improvements to all areas of your life.

Effective High-Level Habits

Now that we have an understanding of low-level habits, we can look at building higher level habits. Each of these habits will bring improvements to your life, and the self-discipline acquired from learning each one can be used to learn others, in a snow-ball like effect.

Become an Early Riser

A lot has been said about the benefits of waking up early. Everyone wants to get more done in less time, and we can either wake up earlier or go to bed later. The main advantage of these two approaches is a lack of distraction and disturbance as everyone else is asleep. You can easily get several uninterrupted hours of work done without a break in concentration. Of the two, early rising has several major advantages:

  • You're more alert – The first few minutes can be difficult, as you shake off the early morning grogginess. A splash of cold water on the face and some fresh air can quickly wake you up. A little vigorous exercise can also get the blood flowing and raise your alertness. At night there's the problem that you don't want to be too alert as you'll be sleeping soon. There is also the fact that you're fighting your body as it releases sleep inducing chemicals into your bloodstream.
  • It's more rewarding – Realising it's 7:30am and that you've already done a tonne of work feels much better than doing the same amount of work as the clock ticks past 2:00am. Knowing you've done a lot before the day has even started is far more rewarding than feeling like you've had to pack it in at the end of the day just to keep up.
  • It gives you time to wind down – If you work up until the moment you sleep, you'll quickly burn out. Waking up early gives you the later hours to yourself, so you can relax and unwind. It's extremely important to make time for relaxation, because it helps to reduce stress and makes you more productive.

Waking up early and staying up late are both habits that can be learnt with the correct preparation. The hardest part of learning to wake up early is battling the internal conversation of "just a few more minutes". It's always extremely tempting to hit the snooze button and stay in bed, but it can be overcome. If you need a little help, you can always put your alarm nice and far away from your bed so you have to get out to switch it off, and then dunk your head in some cold water before going to bed.

Alternatively you can share a bed with somebody who takes up all of the room as soon as you get up so you can't get back in :)

Motivate Yourself

Although motivation in itself is a low-level action, it can be reinforced with a high-level habit. Constantly topping up your motivation is important for those times when things get tough (and they will). There are plenty of different motivational techniques out there, and some work better for different people. Here are a few ideas to get you started:

  • Use the golden hour – Use the first hour of your day to read through positive affirmations, review your goals and get yourself pumped up for a productive day
  • Reward yourself/punish yourself – The carrot and stick motivational techniques are classics. Either dangle a tasty reward in front of yourself that you'll get upon completion, or threaten yourself with something bad if you don't finish in time. You might need external help if you don't yet have the discipline to reward or punish yourself. I'm not a big fan of the punishment approach, as makes you feel worse about not completing something in time can compound the approach, but it's a case of different strokes for different folks.
  • Use positive affirmations – Develop a positive mindset with positive affirmations. Read them as often as possible to keep your thoughts as positive as possible.
  • Do it now! – W. Clement Stone, who built a multi-million dollar insurance business, would have all his employees shout "Do it now!" every morning before they started work. This helped to get them in the mood for a solid day of work, and also got them out of the procrastination mindset. It sounds silly, but this type of reinforcement behaviour can have a profound effect on your productivity.
  • Listen to positive music – We all have songs that get us fired up when we hear them. Make a collection of your favourite tracks and listen to them before you start work. You can also combine this with reading positive affirmations or reading through your goals.
  • Use environmental reinforcement – Put your goals somewhere you'll see them often. When Jack Canfield set himself the goal to earn $100,000, he made a large $100,000 bill and stuck it to the ceiling above his bed so he would see it every morning. This kind of simple trick can help to keep the goal in the front of your mind, and assist in visualisation techniques.
  • Get outside help – Ask friends and family for help, or use a focusing partner.

Take Regular Exercise

Aside from the health benefits of regular exercise, it's great for your productivity and your mood. The body releases endorphins during strenuous activities which elevate the mood, and cause the phenomenon sometimes referred to as the "runner's high".

Committing to regular exercise can be difficult at first. It's important not to do too much when you first start as it can be counter-productive. If you haven't exercised in a long time, start with a small goal like working out for 10 to 15 minutes three times a week. It doesn't sound like a lot, but it can be a challenge if you haven't been doing much physical activity. Once you've built the habit of making time to exercise, you can start to increase the amount of time you spend doing it.

Use the Two-Minute Rule

If you have a task that will take less than two minutes, do it right away. It makes sense to get it done immediately, because it will take longer than two minutes to store it and retrieve it later. There is also the problem that most two minute tasks have produce the feeling that "it'll only take a few mins so I'll do it later", and they either snowball into a much bigger problem or don't get done at all.

Make Plans to Achieve Your Goals

Making plans builds upon the habits of having clear goals and of prioritising actions. Once you have a firm idea of where you're want to go, you'll need to start deciding how you're going to get there. Sometimes you might have no idea how you're going to achieve a goal, and that's fine too. Knowing what the goal is and visualising its achievement can give you valuable ideas, and it also opens your mind to opportunities you may have previously missed.

How far ahead you plan depends on the project and your own personal preference. Regardless of how far ahead you plan, remember to keep your plan as flexible as possible. Unexpected events will always occur, so be ready for them.

Get Yourself Organised

This is really a broad term that covers many smaller habits. Each small habit is useful on its own, but as they add up they become more and more valuable. Examples of good organisational habits are:

  • Use an inbox – Keeping all your inputs in a single place prevents you from becoming overwhelmed from too many sources. The inbox is not a place to store work, and once something goes in to the inbox it should be processed once and dealt with. Don't succumb to the urge to leaf through it and pick out the things you want. Go through it one item at a time, and keep it as empty as possible. The rest of your organisational system should be doing most of the work.
  • Keep your work area clean and tidy – A messy desk might not seem like a big problem, but lots of items lying around it can be a large distraction. Keep it simple and keep it clean.
  • Regularly review your goals – Once you've listed your goals on paper, make it a habit to constantly review them. Make changes where necessary, and don't be afraid to modify or even remove a goal if it is no longer relevant.
  • File away your project work – As mentioned earlier, don't use your inbox to store your work. Use folders to store work on projects, even if the folder will contain a single piece of paper. This approach makes it much easier to find the things you want, and keeps other areas clean and tidy.
  • Use project and task lists – Keep a list of all the projects that you are working on, and keep separate lists of all your tasks. Use contextual to-do's where appropriate.

Organisation can be a sticking point for some people, either because they have negative views of organised people, or because of a pre-conceived motion that they're just disorganised and that's the way it is.

A lack of organisation is a habit that can be replaced, and it's well worth it. For example, if you spend 5 minutes a day looking for misplaced items, putting things in the correct place could save nearly 20 hours over the course of a year. Granted, that's a particularly contrived example but the benefits are real. By getting organised you'll save time, reduce stress and have higher self-esteem.

Developing a high level habit

A habit is a "recurrent pattern of behaviour that acquired through frequent repetition". In order to truly learn a high-level habit, you must continuously and consciously repeat the behaviour that you want to see. It requires devoted energy and attention, but all habits can be developed with the correct mindset. When you are first getting started, develop small changes at a time. As you succeed, start to build on these previous successes. It's tempting to try and change everything overnight, but this approach usually leads to failure and frustration, and can set you further back in the long-term.

A simple method for learning a habit is as follows:

  1. Define the habit to be learnt – Define a specific and measurable habit that you wish to learn. "I exercise for 25 minutes every day at 7am" is a good example, but "I regularly exercise" isn't. Much like setting goals, you must be as specific as possible so that you know exactly what needs to be done to say that the habit has been learnt.
  2. Monitor your progress – Create a system for monitoring your progress. This can be as simple as ticking a checkbox at the end of the day, or filling in a chart. It could also be something more substantial like writing entries in a journal to describe the experience in more details.
  3. Use environmental reinforcement – Put up reminders and encouragement in places where you will constantly see it. Good places include the ceiling above your bed, or on a wall next to it. Also stick it on or above your desk, so that you'll see it whilst you work.
  4. Take action – The more often you take the action, the easier it is to repeat. It can be difficult to start any new habit, and there is often a dip midway where you want to revert to a previous habit. Fight the urge, and enlist the help of others if you need it.

Any new habit takes work to achieve, but even small changes in your thinking and behaviour can create substantial changes in all areas of your life. None of these changes can be learnt overnight, but with consistent effort and energy you can transform your life into something truly amazing.

Increasing your productivity with a time log

Picture the scene: It's the end of the day, and although you're exhausted, you feel as if you've done nothing all day. "If only I hadn't wasted so much time" you think. "Tomorrow, I'll get up earlier and work extra hard!" The next day, you climb into bed, exhausted but unfulfilled. "If only I hadn't wasted so much time", you think…

There's nothing quite as de-motivating as feeling you've wasted a day doing nothing. It's easy to get frustrated, and even if you have had a productive day, the habit of beating yourself up can still keep your mood down and hold you back. Unless you keep track of what you're doing with your time, your account at the end of the day will mainly be based upon how you feel at the time. The solution to this problem is the trusty time log.

What is a time log?

A time-log is a simple tool that lets you keep track how you're spending your time. This is very helpful when trying to optimise your time, and it also helps to make sure you don't concentrate on the negative aspects of your day. After a few days and weeks of using a time log, you can then build up an accurate picture of how productive you're being, as well as when your most productive hours are. For example, you might find you're much more productive during the first few hours of the day, or directly after you've exercised. Using this information you can optimise your daily performance by scheduling tasks for your most productive hours.

How do you keep a time log?


I use a very simple 3-column format for my time logs. The left column is used to note the start time, the large column contains the activity and the small column on the right is used at the end of the day to calculate the length of the session. Although the example picture is from a spreadsheet, I prefer to use a purely paper driven system for ease of use and portability.

Your own personal circumstances will determine when you start keeping track of your time. If you're self-employed, you might want to start it as soon as you wake yup. If you're in an office environment, it might be more beneficial to start as soon as you leave your front door. If there's a particular part of your daily routine that you feel is causing trouble, make sure you capture it on your log for later analysis.

Once you've started, every single activity needs to be noted down. This includes tea and coffee breaks, toilet stops and the ubiquitous "just 10 seconds to check my email" task. Most of these are trivial activities, but it's quite enlightening to see just how long they take when added up. To give an example, the very first time I used this technique I found I was wasting over three hours on "checking email/web surfing".

At the end of the monitored time period, work out how much time was spent on each task by using the recorded information. After a week or two of using this technique, you'll have a good idea of areas where you need to improve. It's also not unusual to see a direct improvement within the first few days as a result of tracking your time. Often knowing that your time is being monitored is enough to keep you on-track for a little bit longer and can help you push through to a task's completion.

Isn't this all a little excessive?

Keeping a time log is a very small price to pay compared to the improvements that can be gained. If you're wasting a lot of time during the day, it's not uncommon to double your productivity within a week or two. And remember, you can stop keeping a record once you've made the improvements you wanted. If ever you feel your productivity has slipped, you can start recording again.

25 tweaks to increase your productivity

Personal development is very rarely made up of major changes, but is often about many small adjustments made over time. These small changes eventually add up to a long-lasting improvement, and are much easier to accomplish than a huge shift. Whilst some of these changes might not seem significant at the time, they can be important building blocks that form of the foundation of future habits.

Here are 25 small tweaks you can use to increase your overall productivity.

1. Start as you mean to go on

The first hour of the day is sometimes called the "Golden Hour", as it sets the tone for how the rest of the day will unfold. Set yourself up for a highly productive day by making the most of the Golden Hour. Gather your thoughts, read through your goals (both long and short-term), read your affirmations and prepare yourself for the day ahead.

2. Use positive affirmations

Positive affirmations are a tool for replacing negative self-talk with something more productive. It's quite common for people to use negative affirmations without realising it, so why not give your performance a boost and replace these negative vibes. Your affirmations should be present tense, personal and as specific as possible. Read them every morning and night, and keep them on an index card so you can whip them out and read through them when you have a few moments spare.

3. Set goals

It's all too easy to take life as it comes, and not to look further ahead than the job that's in front of you, but by taking this approach you miss out on so much more. Goals give you a clearer picture of where your actions should be leading you, which makes prioritisation much easier. Well written goals are also great motivators, and they can help you through tough times as you know that completing difficult tasks will lead to something much better. If you're new to goals, see the article "goal setting for beginners" for some helpful tips.

4. Brainstorm

Brainstorming (or mind-mapping) is a great technique for getting your creative side going and putting lots of ideas onto paper. Simply start with a blank sheet of paper, and write your central topic or idea in the center. As related ideas come into your head, add them to the sheet and connect them to the related idea with a line. Once you've got a few ideas down, you'll find the rest flow very quickly. The important part is to go for quantity not quality. It's important not to judge ideas until you're done, as it can stifle the creative process.

5. Eliminate distractions

If you're going to start doing some work, make sure you eliminate all possible distractions. Turn off your phone, put up "do not disturb" signs and let people know that you're working. Turn off the TV too, and if you're connected to the internet you might want to unplug your connection too. Even the smallest distraction can break your concentration and reduce your productivity, so do your best to make sure your environment is as free of distractions as possible.

6. Keep a journal or progress log

Keeping track of your progress might seem like overkill, but it can be a valuable insight into how effective you are, as well as how close you are to achieving your goals. Journals are also good for capturing your moods and current ideas, and for working through difficult problems.

7. Use contextual to-do lists

One of the most useful, and perhaps obvious, tips from David Allen's "Getting Things Done" methodology is organising to-do lists into contexts instead of projects. Most systems will have contexts such as "@Desk", "@Computer" and "@Phone". This way of organising things makes it much easier to tick off lots of little tasks at the same time. Once you've used it for a few days, you'll wonder why you didn't think of it before.

8. Use a someday / maybe list

This is another excellent tip from Getting Things Done. Good ideas can spring up at any time, and more often than not it's at a time when we're working on something totally different. The someday/maybe list is a way of noting down a good idea or a cool project for review at a later date. Ideally this list should be reviewed every few weeks to see if there is now time to work on any of the items, and also to clean out any ideas that aren't so great now the initial excitement has worn off.

9. Take a mind dump

It's hard to work on a task when a trillion other things are swimming through your head, so grab a piece of paper and perform a mind dump. The basic idea is to get absolutely everything out of your head and onto paper so it can be processed later. Once everything else is stored on paper you'll be able to concentrate on a single task without being distracted by other random thoughts.

10. Monitor your time

Keeping a time log doesn't have to be anything complex, and just writing down the start time and the activity will give you enough data to see where your time is going. This is especially useful if you ever get the feeling that you're wasting your days. Even a few days of using a time log can give you a deep insight into where you need to focus your improvements. It's not uncommon to gain one or two productive hours a day from using this technique, as knowing you're monitoring your time can prevent you from going back to unproductive habits such as surfing the web or watching TV.

11. Use a focussing partner

Sometimes the going gets tough, and you need a little bit of extra support to get you through. This is where a focussing partner comes in. You give a close friend or colleague a copy of your goals and targets, and they can help make sure you're moving in the right direction. It's not always easy to open up your deepest values and goals to another person, but you can gain a lot of insight and motivation from the experience.

12. Prepare your workspace before you start

Before you start working, make sure you have everything you need to hand. Pens, paper and plenty of water are the three essentials I keep at all of my workspaces. Also make sure you have any information or books that you'll need handy. Getting up to fetch something might not seem like a big time eater, but it interrupts the flow of work, which can be hard to get back into.

13. Take a nap

Getting 40 winks might seem like the last thing to do to increase your work rate, but studies have shown that taking a nap during the day can considerably improve concentration and performance. Fifteen to twenty minutes is usually enough time to recharge your batteries, and coupled with a splash of cold water after waking up you'll be ready and raring to go.

14. Take a break

Sitting in the same place for any length of time is never a good idea, so take short breaks during the work day. Even if it's only a few minutes, a short break and a little light exercise can work wonders for your productivity.

15. Get yourself organised

There's some stigma attached to being organised. It can often be regarded as being cold and calculated to be organised, but in reality it's one of the most important things you can do. Setting up a system that works for you is the most important thing, and it's quite likely that you'll need to try a few systems before you find something that fits. At the very least you'll want an inbox for processing incoming jobs, a collection of to-do lists and a collection of alphabetised folders for a reference system.

16. Eat properly & keep your fluids up

Today's work environments can be very fast paced, and there's never enough time to get everything done, let alone take time to eat and drink. Don't give in to the temptation of skipping meals, especially breakfast. Your body needs energy to keep you going, so make sure it has enough for the job. Also make sure you keep your fluid levels up by drinking plenty of water, as this increases your energy and improves your concentration.

17. Get some exercise

You should aim to do at least thirty minutes of exercise, three times a week. Swimming, cycling and skipping are all good activities. If you're jogging, try to job on softer ground to protect your joints from wear and tear that can be caused from running on a hard surface.

18. Use the four D's

When processing your inbox, use the "four D's" approach to sorting the contents:

  • Do it – If the task will take less than two minutes to complete, do it right away. Any task that takes less than two minutes will take longer to add to your system than if it's done right away. The time savings from this technique alone can be quite substantial.
  • Delegate it – If someone else is better suited to completing the task, delegate it. Delegation can be one of the hardest skills to master, but it's another great time saver.
  • Defer it – Defer tasks that need to be done later. They can either be noted on your someday/maybe list, or entered into your calendar if they must be completed on a certain day.
  • Drop it – Think about the task. Does it really need to be done? If you're sure the outcome of completing it won't be worth the effort involved, drop it.

19. Learn to say "No" again

An important part of being productive is realising that you can't do everything. Saying "no" is something we learn to say at an early age, and it's a sign of our growing independence. However, as we get older we become less proficient at saying no, through a mixture of guilt and fear. If you don't have the time or the energy to take on a new job, don't be afraid to say no.

20. Work at a higher tempo

Author Brian Tracy advocates working at a higher tempo in order to get things done faster and more efficiently. Instead of slowly trudging through a task, aim to get it finished in half the time. This doesn't mean you have to cut corners or produce something of a lower quality, but eliminate all of the small distractions such as staring out of the window or thinking about what's for dinner.

21. Limit your time

Any task you have to do will usually expand into its allotted time. Combat this effect by limiting the time you give each job, and make sure you stick to it. Knowing you only have a limited amount of time to complete something can help push you forward, and you'll find yourself completing tasks in a shorter space time.

22. Start small

Whenever you're trying to make a change in your life, start with a small change and work upwards. You wouldn't go into a gym and try to start lifting the heaviest weight you could find, but this is exactly the approach many people take when trying to change their lives. Start by making small changes, and build upon these successes as you go.

23. Revisit previous victories

Don't get caught up in negative thought patterns. Keep a record of your previous victories, and read through it when you're feeling low on energy or self-esteem. Constantly remind yourself about where you've succeeded, and look at previous failures to see what good came out of them. Reminding yourself of where you've done well can help push you through tough obstacles that appear, and motivate you to reach the finishing line.

24. Break down your big tasks

Breaking down your tasks help you to focus on one piece at a time, and can help prevent feelings of being overwhelmed. Completing any task, no matter how small, gives us a boost of energy and confidence which makes us more productive. Aim to maximise the number of victories you have during the day, and you'll feel better about yourself and your work.

25. Experiment with different productivity techniques

Don't be afraid to experiment with different techniques. Use 30-day trials, either alone or with a friend. You could even write about the experience online if you feel it will help your progress. Remember: not every technique you try will work, but the more you try the more likely you'll find something that makes a real difference. Be willing to step out of your comfort zone too, and grow into a better person.

Why we procrastinate (and what to do about it)

We all procrastinate at some point in our lives, whether it's procrastinating over completing a project or putting off painting the living room .A small amount of procrastination is not always a bad thing, as it can give us time to think things through, but regular procrastination can destroy your life as chances pass you by. We're often aware that we're procrastinating, but we still do it anyway. Why is this, and more importantly, what can be done about it?

Why we procrastinate

Procrastination is mostly used as a defence mechanism to protect us from our fears, such as the fear of failure. This behaviour is reinforced by the fact that procrastination is often rewarded. For example, even high school assignments that were completed the day before were often rewarded with a relatively high grade. There was very little incentive to go the extra mile and complete something early and to a higher standard. If anything, this kind of behaviour would often result in alienation from your peers and even physical bullying.

Despite saying to ourselves "that's the last time I'll leave it so late", we still end up leaving important jobs to the last minute. Why?

Fear of Failure

Failure has different meanings for different people. For a perfectionist, anything less than the absolute best result is a failure. For other people, it may be a lack of praise from someone they respect that causes them to believe their project is a failure. This fear is particularly potent as many people (mistakenly) equate their own self-worth to the worth of whatever they create. If the project is a failure, then in their eyes they are also a failure. This way of looking at self-worth can be extremely damaging, as it prevents us from taking chances in case we fall short of some impossible mark.

Fear of Success

As if the fear of failure wasn't enough, now it's the fear of success! This takes several different forms, but a lot of it is down to your own perceptions of the outside world. You might have negative images of successful people, and worry that you might become like them if you succeed. Again, this fear can come from school where most success is frowned upon by peers. It's often easier to lower your performance to an average level just to get by.

The other worry that goes with success is the fear that you will have more and more work piled upon you when you succeed and that you'll eventually become overwhelmed…

Fear of Being Overwhelmed

As well worrying that success will lead to more work being piled on, there is also the initial fear of seeing how much work the project needs in order to be completed. This leads to stress as all those minor tasks rush through your head. In a sense this is similar to starting with a blank canvas and wondering about how you will transform it into a work of art. Feeling overwhelmed can have a large impact on overall productivity, as you run around putting out fires without ever feeling like you're moving forward.

Fear of Finishing

The fear of finishing is quite interesting, as most of us procrastinate about getting started. Fear of finishing is closely tied to the fears of success and failure, in that the project will be "judged" upon completion, which will lead to either success or failure. There is also a fear of the emptiness upon completing the project, which can be especially prevalent if it's been worked on for a long period of time.

Lack of Direction

It's difficult to get started on a task if you're not sure of where it's going, even though it can feel like planning will only slow you down. It's vitally important to have a good idea of the final outcome for a project, even if the finished article will differ. Without an end result in mind, it's hard to go anywhere.

Lack of Discipline / Laziness

I wasn't sure whether to include this on the list, as it's much easier to beat yourself up and say it's down to laziness than to accept you may be afraid of something. If you find you're always putting the rewards first, you might need to take a look at yourself to see if it's really a lack of discipline, or if you have a deeper fear of something. Don't be too quick to write yourself off as lazy.

How do we overcome procrastination?

Detach your self-worth from your work

This is easier said than done, but it's really important to keep your self-worth separate from your results. It's a fact of life that some things don't always turn out how we expected. At the time failure can seem like the worst thing in the World, but given time it's easier to see the good things that came from it. Lessons can be learnt from every failure, and improvements can be made that will make you a better person. If you fail, take some time to look at it before picking yourself up and moving on.

Break your tasks into smaller parts

Large projects should be broken down into many smaller chunks, which can then be completed in short bursts. This can help to prevent the overwhelming feeling when looking at the bigger picture, and can also be useful to get you get started.

Make continuous improvements

In "Agile Achievement", I mentioned making iterative improvements to projects. Many small improvements over time can help break the mental picture that the first release must be perfect. To follow up with the blank canvas analogy, think of using an iterative approach as using light pencil lines to sketch your picture, before adding more detail and finally beginning the actual painting.

Not only do small iterations help break the image of the huge barrier to completion, but they also allow you to make adjustments much easier.

Understand that you can't do everything

There is never enough time to do everything that you want. If you're feeling overwhelmed with work, it might well be time to learn to prioritize your tasks. My favourite method is one used by Brian Tracy, in which you read through your task list and prioritise based on which task would make the most difference in your life if completed. This helps to clarify which tasks are really the most important, and can help prevent you from wasting your time on irrelevant jobs.